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April 13, 2012

Definitions are important.

The following information will be useful for upcoming posts, and useful when talking politics.  I know it’s very scrolly, please forgive.

Types of Government:   

   Adhocracy – government based on type of organization that operates in opposite fashion to a bureaucracy.

    Authoritarian – Authoritarian governments are characterized by an emphasis on the authority of the state in a republic or union. It is a political system controlled by unelected rulers who usually permit some degree of individual freedom.

    Anarchism – Sometimes said to be non-governance; it is a structure which strives for non-hierarchical voluntary associations among agents.

    Band Society – government based on small (usually family) unit with a semi-informal hierarchy, with strongest (either physical strength or strength of character) as leader. Very much like a pack seen in other animals, such as wolves.

    Chiefdom (Tribal) – government based on small complex society of varying degrees of centralization that is led by an individual known as a chief.

    Constitutional monarchy – A government that has a monarch, but one whose powers are limited by law or by a formal constitution, such as the United Kingdom[9][10]

    Constitutional republic – A government whose powers are limited by law or a formal constitution, and chosen by a vote amongst at least some sections of the populace (Ancient Sparta was in its own terms a republic, though most inhabitants were disenfranchised; The early United States was a republic, but the large numbers of African Americans and women did not have the vote). Republics which exclude sections of the populace from participation will typically claim to represent all citizens (by defining people without the vote as “non-citizens”).

    Democracy – Rule by a government chosen by election where most of the populace are enfranchised. The key distinction between a democracy and other forms of constitutional government is usually taken to be that the right to vote is not limited by a person’s wealth or race (the main qualification for enfranchisement is usually having reached a certain age). A Democratic government is, therefore, one supported (at least at the time of the election) by a majority of the populace (provided the election was held fairly). A “majority” may be defined in different ways. There are many “power-sharing” (usually in countries where people mainly identify themselves by race or religion) or “electoral-college” or “constituency” systems where the government is not chosen by a simple one-vote-per-person headcount.

    Dictatorship – Rule by an individual who has full power over the country. The term may refer to a system where the dictator came to power, and holds it, purely by force – but it also includes systems where the dictator first came to power legitimately but then was able to amend the constitution so as to, in effect, gather all power for themselves.[11] See also Autocracy and Stratocracy.

    Emirate – similar to a monarchy or sultanate, but a government in which the supreme power is in the hands of an emir (the ruler of a Muslim state); the emir may be an absolute overlord or a sovereign with constitutionally limited authority.[12]

    Geniocracy – government ruled by creativity, innovation, intelligence and wisdom.

    Kratocracy – government ruled by those strong enough to seize power through physical force or political cunning.

    Kritocracy – government ruled by judges.

    Matriarchy – Rule by which females (especially mothers) have the central roles of political leadership.

    Meritocracy – Rule by a group selected on the basis of their ability.

    Monarchy – Rule by an individual who has inherited the role and expects to bequeath it to their heir.[13]

    Nomocracy – Rule according to higher law. That is, a government under the sovereignty of rational laws and civic right as opposed to one under theocratic systems of government [1]. In a nomocracy, ultimate and final authority (sovereignty) exists in the law.

    Oligarchy – Rule by a small group of people who share similar interests or family relations.[14]

    Patriarchy – Rule by which males act as the primary political authority, and where fathers hold authority over women, children, and property.

    Plutocracy – A government composed of the wealthy class. Any of the forms of government listed here can be plutocracy. For instance, if all of the voted representatives in a republic are wealthy, then it is a republic and a plutocracy.

    Republic – is a form of government in which the people, or some significant portion of them, have supreme control over the government and where offices of state are elected or chosen by elected people.[15][16] In modern times, a common simplified definition of a republic is a government where the head of state is not a monarch.[17][18] Montesquieu included both democracies, where all the people have a share in rule, and aristocracies or oligarchies, where only some of the people rule, as republican forms of government.[19]

    Stratocracy – form of military government in which the state and the military are traditionally the same thing. (Not to be confused with “militarism” or “military dictatorship”.)

    Technocracy – government ruled by doctors, engineers, scientists, professionals and other technical experts.

    Theocracy – Rule by a religious elite.[20]

    Timocracy – government ruled by honorable citizens and property owners.

    Totalitarian – Totalitarian governments regulate nearly every aspect of public and private life.

The basic and general economic systems are:

    Market economy (“hands off” systems, such as Laissez-faire capitalism)
    Mixed economy (a hybrid that blends some aspects of both market and planned economies)
    Planned economy (“hands on” systems, such as state socialism)
    Traditional economy (a generic term for older economic systems)
    Command (Centrally Planned or Socialist) Economic Systems: (a generic term for older economic systems)
    Participatory economics (a system where the production and distribution of goods is guided by public participation)
    Gift economy (where an exchange is made without any explicit agreement for immediate or future rewards)
    Barter economy (where goods and services are directly exchanged for other goods or services)

Planned systems

    Calculation in kind
    Indicative planning
    Planned economy
    State socialism

Market systems

    Market socialism
    Socialist market economy
    Mutualism (economic theory)

Types of mixed economies
Economic systems that contain substantial state, private and sometimes cooperative ownership and operated in mixed economies – i.e., ones that contain substantial amounts of both market activity and economic planning.

    Distributism – Catholic ideal of a “third way” economy, featuring more distributed ownership
    Georgism – socialized rents on land
    Mixed economy
        American School
        Dirigisme
        Nordic model
        Japanese system
        Mercantilism
        Social market economy also known as Soziale Marktwirtschaft
        Social corporatism
        Socialist-oriented market economy
        Progressive utilization theory
        Indicative planning also known as a planned market economy

This link is useful to refer to and repost when someone is loose with political descriptors.

From → Politics

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